Selection and Testing of Bricks and Building Stones for Construction of your House

For strong walls of a house, bricks are used as one of the main material for construction along with cement and iron. To select the best brick some quality testing method are available so that at the site itself you can check its strength, one of the test is that, by lifting the brick block to the height above your shoulder and dropping it down, the force of gravity and the weight of the brick give enough stress on brick so that it is determined to the bonding strength of the clay used for making the bricks, the result of the test should not break the brick into pieces if the brick stays as it is than the lot can be used for construction . The second test is very simple just place the brick in a bucket full of water, allow it to stay for 1 to 2 hours, if it don’t get dispersed into the water that it is good brick, there are method used for determining the water proof bricks too.

Brick made of clay should be baked at the temperatures 700 to 1100 oC, and the check the porosity of the brick from the contract company because it is the main property which determine the mechanical strength of the brick, the porosity values should be around 1 to 2.5 microns which are capable of withstanding any weather conditions, acid rains and salt crystallization.

Bricks are classified of two types based on carbonate contain

  •  Brick with carbonates: Calcium and Magnesium silicates are present which are baked at temperature 900 to 1000 centigrade and have micropores of size less than one micron, they show high resistance to salty weather.
  •  Brick without carbonate: Mullite percentage is more in it and baked at 1100 centigrade temperatures, its macropores are greater than 1 micron. Used for all regular construction away from salt water. 
Building stones are used for primary basement foundation and involves granites, quartzite, basalt, marble, limestone and sandstone in its category. These stones are classified into dimension stone and crushed stone. The dimension stone are the rectangular blocks which have the property of poor conduction of heat and resist to water. Clay formed from inorganic materials are and basic components are Kaolinite: Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O, Monotmorillonite: Al2O3.4SiO2.nH2O
Stealite are the electrical dielectric compounds made of talc, kaolinite material used for electrical porcelain bodies, this is known as white clay.

Clay bodies are differentiated into four types as 1. Earthenware 2. Fine china 3. Stoneware 4. Porcelai

The apparent porosity of earthenware is  usually 6-8% may exceed 15%, for Fine china usually less than 1% , for Stoneware less than 3% and usually 1-2% and for Porcelain less than 1% and usually zero.

Refractory bricks are commonly made from Silica, Silicon carbide, Magnesite, Dolomite and Zircon.