Reactors are equipments used for carrying out some chemical reaction, they are broadly classified based on the application and involved in the energy, food, health dialysis categories and much more. We know that the nuclear reactor is heart of a nuclear plant in the same way, for biological chemical reactions which take place in human body its organic living molecules acts as complex reactor. By observing the nature when a raw material converts into another product, this leads to conversion, which is done in a system with a boundary and separated from surrounding; this system is called as reactor.
People who work in the chemical plant will be familiar with these equipments, but to knowing more about the reactors help a lot in the shift works and in their carrier to.
Without much discussion let see the types of reactors used for chemical reactions.
The three basic classification or chemical reactors are
2. Continuous stirred tank reactor
3. Plug flow reactor
Based on heating and cooling reactors are named as
- Internal heat or cooled reactor
- External heat or cooled reactor
- Jacketed reactor
Most chemical reaction is carried out with a catalyst to improve the time and conversion of reaction. Based on this parameter the subclass of reactor can be distributed as:
2. Multi tubular reactor
3. Slurry reactor
4. Moving bed reactor
5. Fluidized bed reactor
6. Thin or shallow bed reactor
7. Dispersion reactor
8. Film reactor
In design a chemical reactor one should have chemical reaction kinetic data and the equipment design data with these in hand we can estimate the approximate design without wasting time, by following the below steps it will lead to sequence of the designing procedure.
2. Search some of the literature and patent information regarding the desired product reaction mechanism.
3. Does the process have side and undesired reactions?
4. The operating conditions like temperature and pressure required for reaction to take place.
5. Go through the reaction kinetics and catalyst suitable to the reaction.
6. Now find out the material and energy balance of whole process.
7. By using the various combination's of reactors and separation equipments draw the optimum flow sheet.
8. Include all the environmental and safety aspects with respect to chemicals and equipments.
9. Simulate the start up and shut down of the plant designed.
You will notice some of the draw backs in material balance and energy balance, by rectifying them you are ready with the design of chemical reactor and chemical process which can be used for production.