Haldor Topsoe Process Flow Sheet: Manufacture Of Ammonia

Ammonia continuous production process flow sheet from reactant materials nitrogen and hydrogen, hydrogen produced from naphtha feed stock
Haldor Topsoe Process Flow Sheet of Ammonia Production

This process departs from Haber’s process. In this process the residual gas is wasted to the atmosphere.

The advantages of this process are:
1. Greater compactness, simplicity in case of converter design since under high pressure gases have smaller volume.
2. Elimination of expensive heat exchanger required in processes operated at low pressure.
3. Removal of ammonia with water cooling alone.

Against these are the disadvantages:
1. Shorter life of converters.
2. High apparatus upkeep in the high pressure operation.
3. Efficiency loss in approximately 20% of making up gas, which is unconverted.

In comparison, Haldor Topsoe process operates at the pressures lower than Claude process and against the disadvantage of using heat exchanger for heat recovery and less compactness in converter design. Recovery  of 20% of unconverted gas and recycling it to increase the efficiency and conversion of complete process and the large and massive compressors which are used in Claude process are required to maintaining 900 atm which cost  millions of  Dollars are avoided in Haldor Topsoe and is thus more economic and good especially for large capacity process. Also the life of the converter is very long and ammonia is removed by water-cooling and by knock out drum.

Process important sections:
1. Naphtha Gas Supply
2. Desulphurization Section
3. Reforming Section
4. CO Conversion Section
5. CO2 Conversion Section
6. Methanation
7. Ammonia Synthesis Section
8. Refrigeration Section 
9. Ammonia Absorption Section
Schematic diagram and installed process plant ammonia synthesis converter image